Effect of carbonization on the surface and influence on heavy metal removal by water hyacinth stem-based carbon
Tinega, Joseph N.
Warui, Charles M.
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Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the effect of carbonization on the surface and its influence on heavy metal removal by water hyacinth based carbon. Design/methodology/approach – Dried water hyacinth stem was used as precursor to prepare carbon based adsorbent by pyrolysis method. The adsorbent proximate (ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) and elemental (carbon hydrogen nitrogen sulfur) composition, surface area, pore size distribution, surface chemistry was examined and compared. Findings – The results demonstrated that through carbonization in comparison to dried water hyacinth stem, it increased the surface area (from 58.46 to 328.9 m2 /g), pore volume (from 0.01 to 0.07 cc/g), pore size (from 1.44 to 7.557 A) thus enhancing heavy metal adsorption. The metal adsorption capacity of Cd, Pb and Zn was measured and analyzed through induced coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. At metal concentration of 0.1 mg/ l adsorption rate for Cd, Pb and Zn was 99% due to increased large surface area, coupled with large pore size and volume. Furthermore, the adsorbent surface hydroxyl group (OH ) enhanced adsorption of positively charged metal ions through electrostatic forces. Practical implications – It is presumed that not only adsorption with synthetic wastewater but real wastewater samples should be examined to ascertain the viability of adsorbent for commercial application. Originality/value – There are little or scanty data on the effects of carbonization on water hyacinth stem based carbon and subsequent effects on heavy metal removal in effluents.
- Journal Articles (PAS)